Vaccination and Medication

  • 5-in-1 Clostridial Vaccination of Alpacas

    5-in-1 vaccine protects against 5 different but related bacteria known collectively as clostridial diseases. These bacteria can cause sudden death in your alpacas. more »
  • A Medicine Room and its Usage

    Do you have a room exclusively for medications and medical supplies for your herd? In my opinion it is a necessity for any alpaca owner. more »
  • Pharmacokinetics After Intravenous, Subcutaneous, and Oral Administration of Enrofloxacin to Alpacas

    Objective—To determine plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and the active metabolite ciprofloxacin after PO, SC, and IV administration of enrofloxacin to alpacas. Animals—6 adult female alpacas. Procedure—A crossover design was used for administration of 3 single-dose treatments of enrofloxacin to alpacas, which was followed by an observational 14-day multiple-dose regimen. Single-dose treatments consisted of IV and SC administration of injectable enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) and PO administration of enrofloxacin tablets (10 mg/kg) dissolved in grain to form a slurry. Plasma enrofloxacin concentrations were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The multiple-dose regimen consisted of feeding a mixture of crushed and moistened enrofloxacin tablets mixed with grain. Behavior, appetite, and fecal quality were monitored throughout the 14-day treatment regimen and for 71 additional days following treatment. Results—Mean half-life following IV, SC, and PO administration was 11.2, 8.7, and 16.1 hours, respectively. For SC and PO administration, mean total systemic availability was 90.18% and 29.31%, respectively; mean maximum plasma concentration was 3.79 and 1.81 µg/mL, respectively; and area under the curve (AUC) was 50.05 and 33.97 (µg × h)/mL, respectively. The SC or PO administration of a single dose of enrofloxacin yielded a ratio for AUC to minimum inhibitory concentration > 100 for many grampositive and gram-negative bacterial pathogens common to camelids. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The administration of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, SC, or 10 mg/kg, PO) may be appropriate for antimicrobial treatment of alpacas. more »
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Midazolam after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration in Alpacas

    Objective—To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of midazolam after IV and IM administration in alpacas. Animals—6 healthy alpacas. Procedures—Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IV or IM in a randomized crossover design. Twelve hours prior to administration, catheters were placed in 1 (IM trial) or both (IV trial) jugular veins for drug administration and blood sample collection for determination of serum midazolam concentrations. Blood samples were obtained at intervals up to 24 hours after IM and IV administration. Midazolam concentrations were determined by use of tandem liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results—Maximum concentrations after IV administration (median, 1,394 ng/mL [range, 1,150 to 1,503 ng/mL]) and IM administration (411 ng/mL [217 to 675 ng/mL]) were measured at 3 minutes and at 5 to 30 minutes, respectively. Distribution half-life was 18.7 minutes (13 to 47 minutes) after IV administration and 41 minutes (30 to 80 minutes) after IM administration. Elimination half-life was 98 minutes (67 to 373 minutes) and 234 minutes (103 to 320 minutes) after IV and IM administration, respectively. Total clearance after IV administration was 11.3 mL/min/kg (6.7 to 13.9 mL/min/kg), and steady-state volume of distribution was 525 mL/kg (446 to 798 mL/kg). Bioavailability of midazolam after IM administration was 92%. Peak onset of sedation occurred at 0.4 minutes (IV) and 15 minutes (IM). Sedation was significantly greater after IV administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Midazolam was well absorbed after IM administration, had a short duration of action, and induced moderate levels of sedation in alpacas. more »