The clinical signs associated with acute abdominal pain in South American camelids tend to be subtle and less frequent (similar to ruminants) as compared with that of horses. Abdominocentesis and transabdominal ultrasound are useful tools in determining the necessity of an exploratory laparotomy. Preoperative anticipation of the lesion location helps determine the surgical approach to the abdomen. Perioperative management is vital to improve chances for survival. Timely surgical intervention for correctable gastrointestinal lesions is expected to minimize postoperative complications and improve outcomes.
Rectal prolapse is a common occurrence in cattle and small ruminants. This article discusses the causes, correction, and postoperative treatment of rectal prolapse in cattle and sheep.