Tag: "artificial insemination"
- Australia as a leader in the sheep industry has the experience, infrastructure, institutions, and assisted reproductive technologies required for genetic improvement of alpaca herds. With the development of artificial insemination, embryo transfer techniques, in vitro production of embryos (IVP) and the inauguration of a genetic improvement program for alpacas, it will be possible to develop a breed of extra fine Australian alpaca comparable to the alpaca kept by the Incas before the conquest in relatively few years.
- Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1,7,15 and 30 days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen–thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas.
- Degelification of highly viscous alpaca semen was attempted using two enzymes: trypsin and collagenase. Dilution effect on artificial insemination was determined in alpacas. Semen from 4 male alpacas was collected, degelified, diluted, and inseminated into 80 female alpacas. Degelification was achieved adding trypsin and collagenase enzymes to fresh semen samples. Semen was diluted with egg-yolk glucose citrate to give concentrations of 4, 8, and 12 million spermatozoa/mL. Females were induced to ovulate with human chorionic gonadotropin and then inseminated deep into the uterine horns. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in the effect of trypsin and collagenase on sperm acrosome and on motility and live spermatozoa. The chi-square test was used to determine differences in pregnancy of artificially inseminated females. Semen was degelified with different concentrations of trypsin and collagenase. There were differences (p< .05) in the pregnancy rate of female alpacas inseminated with 4 million (53.3%), 8 million (66.7%), and 12 million sperm/mL (61.5%). Alpaca semen may be degelified using trypsin and/or collagenase. It seems that 8 million sperm/mL is adequate for artificial insemination in alpacas.
- Alpacas have become more popular during the last decades. The herds have been built up by importing live animals since reproductive biotechnologies, for example artificial insemination and semen preservation, are not well-developed in this species. A major problem is the viscosity of the seminal plasma which hinders processing or evaluation of the semen. Enzymes have been used to deal with the viscous seminal plasma but they may damage spermatozoa or render them incapable of fertilization. The use of reproductive biotechnologies would permit the introduction of new genetics without the need to import live animals, thus improving animal welfare and reducing the risk of spreading diseases. Therefore, our aim was to improve reproductive biotechnologies to help develop the Swedish alpaca breeding industry. Laboratory techniques were performed to select the best spermatozoa with Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC), in order to improve cryopreservation. These techniques were developed first using bull semen. There was an improvement in sperm quality in the SLC-selected samples, particularly from poor quality semen. In addition, the SLC technique could be modified to process small volumes. Alpaca epididymides were obtained after routine castration for husbandry purposes, with the intention of comparing semen extenders using extracted epididymal spermatozoa. Most of the organs came from pre-pubertal animals and therefore did not contain spermatozoa. Nevertheless, a decision-making tool for alpaca husbandry under Swedish conditions was developed. We suggest a combination of testicular size and body condition score as a tool for decision-making in the selection of potential sires for animal husbandry under Swedish conditions. A phantom was designed and built to collect semen samples in Sweden, and semen collection trials were also performed in Perú. The advantages and disadvantages of different semen collection techniques were evaluated. However, the problem with semen viscosity still has to be solved. Therefore a semen collection method should be established so that semen handling methods can be developed. We conclude that a phantom could be the best method to use for semen collection in Sweden, since it is a fairly simple technique and, as far as we are aware, there are no animal welfare concerns.
- Despite being widely used for long-term storage and dissemination of male genetic material in many species, semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI) are not well-developed for camelids. The main reason for the delay in developing these technologies is the poor semen quality of camelids and the viscous nature of the seminal plasma, particularly in alpacas and llamas. An effective sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination program would allow alpaca producers to cheaply and safely disseminate superior male genetics throughout the national herd and beyond. This report is aimed at all alpaca industry members and researchers in camelid reproduction and production. Alpaca farms are spread across Australia, but concentrated in the eastern states. All alpaca producers will find this report relevant. It will be of particular interest to those already incorporating assisted reproductive technologies (such as embryo transfer) into their husbandry or those wanting to increase the genetic diversity of their herd.