Plasma Concentrations of Fenbendazole (FBZ) and Oxfendazole in Alpacas (Lama pacos) After Single Intravenous and Oral Dosing of FBZThe objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ) and oxfendazole (OFZ) after intravenous (iv) and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg) to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL) of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min), and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss) was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg). The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours). After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours) and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%). Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL) at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours). Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg) were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL) at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours). FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species.
- Known for their calm temperaments and soft fleece, alpacas were at one time the next hot thing to backyard farmers. A decade ago, the market was frenetic, with some top of the line animals selling for hundreds of thousands of dollars.But the bubble burst, leaving thousands of alpaca breeders with near-worthless herds.
- Centuries ago, the Inca began raising alpacas for their soft and luxurious fleece. They pastured their animals in the lowland meadows and marshlands called bofedales, at an elevation of about 4,000 feet above sea level. The alpaca’s native region has a very short growing season with 75% of the rainfall between December and March. During the dry season (May to October), native forage has relatively low nutritional value. Fortunately, alpacas are well adapted to this cycle of feast and famine. In fact, the primary feeding-related problem among North American alpacas is obesity.
- The DIY (do it yourself) alpaca feeding program includes: - Regular body scoring, two to four times a year - Weaning most males off of pelleted supplements (including crumbles) - Use of simple, pre-formulated one- to-three ingredient protein/energy supplements - Substitution of locally purchased mineral mix for pricier specialty mixes - Daily and preventive use of probiotics to keep animals healthy and reduce vet bills
- I have started a DNA bank for future use mapping potentially genetic diseases and phenotypic traits in alpacas and other camelids. Now that the alpaca genome project is completed, and the first alpaca genome has been completely sequenced, we can really dive into finding the genes involved in camelid health, disease, and various phenotypes of interest to breeders.